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Thread: His-Story in Silat

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    Default His-Story in Silat

    This is His-Story, so probably not 100% accurate history wise because the story is based on oral story handed down from teacher to student. I got these from several website that discussing about silat in Bahasa Indonesia and in Basa Sunda.
    First what I would like to explain here is not about modern silat, what I would like to explain is about traditional silat (IPSI opens registration for pencak silat schools, there IPSI put two classifications, Traditional Pencak Silat which is not doing any form of sport competition by IPSI or Persilat, and Modern Pencak Silat School that will be included in sport competition, but they must including IPSI curriculum in it’s syllabus/standardization). The term “pencak silat” is exclusively for Indonesia, other South East Asia counties use the term “silat” instead. In Indonesia alone there is about 800+ open for public paguron (school).
    Ok then let’s start with West Java.
    In the land of Pasundan, the term martial art is known as Penca, Silat, Penca Silat and Maenpo. For the word penca it was first known recorded in Sanghyang ikshakandha Ng Karesiyan Manuscript, a sundanese kidung about Bubat Tragedy, Dyah pitaloka with the father Prabu Maharaja Linggabuwana Wisesa and mother Retna Lisning that died in the battle that was overwhelmed in numbers by the invading Majapahit Kingdom troops.
    puluh-puluh rombongan heunteu kaitung
    tujuh rupa penca, anu ulin pakarang bae
    lain deui bangsa, serimpi bedaya
    (hoen 1878:99)
    (palagan bubat, soepandi & atmadibrata 1977:45)
    Even though IPSI already defining the definision of Pencak Silat, but generally there are two parts, Penca and Silat. Penca mean:
    kaasup olah raga bela diri ngagunakeun karikatan jeung kapinteran ngagerakkeun anggahota badan biasana bari ditabuhan ku kendang penca, Kamus Basa Sunda : R.A. Danadibrata, hal : 514
    translation:
    included in martial art that using agility and intelligence moving the body that usually followed by musical instrument Kendang Penca.
    So it is popular believe that Penca is kulit - the form that we can see, and silat is isi - the martial skill a person has.
    Next we follow on West Java, especially in Cianjur, it is more known as maenpo. According to Sundanese dictionary (Kamus Besar Kamus Basa Sunda : R.A. Danadibrata, Panitia Penerbitan Kamus Basa Sunda dan UNPAD, Terbitan PT Kiblat Buku Utama, Cetakan
    II Syawal 1427 H / November 2007 ) :
    Maén : kecap pagawéan bareng jeung babaturan migawe sahiji pagawéan (page : 421)
    Po : bs. Cina, maen po: penca, kungfu (page :537)
    It is understandable since the one who popularized it was R. H. Ibrahim Jayaperbata the founder of Maenpo Cikalong (a fusion of Ulin Cimande, Ulin Madi and Ulin Kari, with more emphasis on Madi Power). Back then he was studying in Batavia, where many fighters outside Indonesia, especially from Southern China compete there as the no holds barred fighter sponsored by merchants there, different with Dutch Queen birthday annual fighting tournament in Bogor where the rule was fight to the death (like what it was told from the story of Abah Sera, the Sera’ System founder).
    In Batavia – now Jakarta the term is “maen pukulan” (pukulan is Bahasa Indonesia for Chinese po) is still being used for pecak silat.
    Maenpo it self according to Cikalong practitioners means maen poho (poho literally means forget). There are several philosophical definitions on that:
    “maen anu eweuh tempo”-popularized by R.H. Tarmidi, the nephew of R.H. Ibrahim, means that the maenan is so fast it left no chance for the opposition to react.
    Other meaning is that we make the opposition forget, of oneself so it will be easy to neutralize. Forget here means that we make one forget of the balance (center of gravity), forget about where to attack (by we move to one’s blind side), lock one down so he cannot move.
    Ok this is for now, next I will add his-story of four most used ulinan/amengan/maenan in West Java, which is Cimande (One of ulinan that influenced the (ci)Mande Muda school that you have the history here), Kari and Madi that fused in Cikalong, and Syahbandar. Others like Ulin Macao/Kuntao, Sera’ and silek from Minangkabau also interesting to be brought up.

    -----------new addition 21st Jan 2011------
    The naming of original style/system/ulinan/amengan/maenan usually based on three things: the name of the founder like Sera, the name of the place like Syahbandar, or the name of the technique like Troktok.

    Based on book: bunga rampai pencak silat by Rashid aj. (waroengsilat.com)
    There are two parts in silat:
    1. aspek lahir (part that can be seen): technique, jurus, application, and kaedah (philosophy).
    2. aspek batin (that only you can feel it): attitude, philosophy.

    Technique consist of:
    - sikap: it can be mean as attitude (fight, sparring, or life and death), but sometimes it means stance.
    - attacking technique: striking, grappling, takedown.
    - evasion technique: how to evade attack like stepping to side, forward or backward.
    - blocking technique: with hand or foot.
    - stepping technique: called as langkah, in Sundanese they are called pancer, it has four forms according to point (north, south, east, west), the types are like langkah segitiga (triangle), langkah segi empat (square), langkah melingkar (circle).

    Jurus: is a pattern of movements that is organized, have an aim and becomes the foundation of a martial art technique.

    Application: is the application on jurus against others.

    Weapon: there are many weapons used in silat like knife, machete, kerambit, sword, stick, clurit, fan, scarf, sarong, and many more…

    Kaedah: is the soul of pencak silat, this kaedah put the purpose of why they learn martial art, for example, in Cikalong they use the form madi-sabandar-kari when they receive an attack: first Madi to measure/control and hold the opponent power, then syahbandar means the ability to change the condition and position, then Kari as the finishing/attacking.
    Or like in Perisai Diri dan has kaedah tek-sek, that means sudden pin point fatal attack.
    In many Sundanese martial arts, they use kaedah, lurus dilawan serong, serong dilawan lurus. It’s mean that if the opponent attack straight to us then we put anticipate it with diagonal position, vice versa.
    And in controlling power they have kaedah full power (tenaga 1), half power (tenaga setengah) and no-power (tenaga kosong). And the saying, “isi dilawan kosong, kosong dilawan isi, isi dilawan isi lebih besar” (empty fight full, full fight empty, bigger full power fight full power).

    ------ new addition 24st Jan 2011------
    now in learning you will undergo three/four level, from gerak to gerak rasa/rasa to usik.
    this three level is the terms in sundanese silat.

    gerak: literally means movement, this is the level of we learn to simulate the jurus, "we see we follow", the physical (can be seen by eyes) form of jurus.

    rasa/ rasa gerak: it is the feeling, knowing the purpose of gerak/intention, can be seen but can only be felt by the practitioner and its partner, understanding the movement of power, stance/gravity, this here is when we can apply the soul of the silat system, every paguron and aliran has their own way to teach this level.

    usik: there are many definition on usik, but just for example we can use the definition from maenpo cikalong. usik is a small movement that cannot be seen but can be felt by the opponent by using changing in power and th executed technique. it has the softer energy resonance then level rasa, because usually the energy is only from wrist to end of the fingers. because of the limited energy generated, it is really hard to reach that level. usik function different than gerak, where gerak is more to attention to meet the target or to avoid, usik has the function to stop the gerak ("mematikan gerak"). the meaning of "mati gerak" is like in chess term of "check mate", you cannot do any more of attacking or evasion movement. so basically by doing usik, you change the position of your opponent to be unfavorable to him.
    for the application of usik in the term of maenpo cikalong you can see from the "silat schools" thread.
    note: since i just started silat, my level is still in learning gerak, so rasa and usik still a mystery for me
    Last edited by reedone816; 01-24-2011 at 06:53 AM. Reason: adding gerak-rasa-usik

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    Default Ulin Cimande

    for the Ulin I would like to saparate it in reply so it will be easier to manage.
    here I start with Cimande because it was one of the oldest system in west java and influence many paguron.

    Ulin Cimande/ Tjimande

    All Cimande practitioners agree about who the founder is which name is Abah (a respectful call name for an eldery man) Kaher/Khaer/Kahir/Kaer/Kair.
    But for how he got the style there are still three “stories” how he got the Cimande Style.

    1. First version.
    This version comes from cimande splinter the paguron in the east side of west java (Tasikmalaya and Garut) and South of Cianjur. According to this version, Abah Khaer learned it from his wive. Abah khaer was known as the merchant from Bogor in the 17th-18th century, that travel a lot back forth to Batavia, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, and so on. In the travel he was often robbed, this happened until his wive found something useful.
    One day, Abah Khaer came back from his travel, but he found the house empty, even though it was already dawn., so he waited and waited until he became angry and worry.
    Finally his wife came home, Aki Khaer said “Ti mana maneh?” (where were you?!) but instead of waiting for answer, he right away tried to slap his wive. But his wive able to avoid it with grace and made him lost his balance. This made him mad and tried to punch angrily but again his wive able to avoid it, and it was on and on again until Aki Khaer tired and stumbled down, this made him aware of his misbehavior, and with politeness ask his wife:” timana anjeun teh nyi? Tuluy ti iraha bisa ulin?” (where were you dear wive? Then since when you can do ulin?)
    Finally his wive told him that that morning when she went to the river to wash the clothes and taking the water, she saw a tiger fight with 2 monkeys, one of them holding a tree branch. So beautiful the fight commenced, she decided to stay and to watch it until finish. She tried to record the movements in her mind, and luckily those trio used to moves repeatedly. The fight it self finished at night. And after that she trained the movements until she remembered it completely and it finished at midnight.
    The Jurus she trained:
    - Jurus Harimau/Pamacan (not the black magic “pamacan”, it is purely the physical jurus).
    - Jurus Monyet/ Pamonyet.
    - Jurus Pepedangan (emulate the monkey that using the branch).
    The story above is more like a myth, cannot be proven the thruthness in it. Maenpo Cimande it self brought to East Priangan and South of Cianjur by the tea plantation workers. What interesting fact is that if we ask some old Cimande school there who is their teacher they said “ti indung” (from my mother), because the myth it self influence the people there, don’t be surprised if even women “really” learn Maenpo Cimande and though it to their children and grand children, just like the wive of Abah Khaer though it to Abah Khaer.
    The spreading of Maenpo Cikalong itself until now still being taught there with other system (Cikalong, Kari, Madi, Syahbandar, etc). Some of the famous Cimande practitioner are K.H. Yusuf Todziri (about the end of 19th to early 20th century), Kiai Papak (Indonesian Independence Soldier), Kiai Aji (the founder of Gadjah Putih Mega Paksi Pusaka, Indonesian Independence fighter), Kiai Marzuk (the founder of Maenpo H. Marzuk, when in the Dutch colonialization).

    2. Second Version.
    According to second version, Abah Khaer is a master of manpo from Badui Village. He was believed as the descendant of of Abah Bugis, a Millitary war strategy and Kanuragan teacher for Special troop of Padjadjaran kingdom long ago. Back to Abah Khaer, there was an unrest amongs the elders of Badui Village on Abah Khaer attitude, because there were many fighters from another area that came and dueled with Abah Khaer and all ended with death.
    Death because of duel in Badui considered as dirtying the sacredness of Badui Soil. The leader of the Badui Village (called Pu’un) asked Abah Khaer to leave the Badui Village and he started to stay in Cimande Village, in Bogor. But to guard the secrets of Badui Village (Especially Badui dalam), Abah Khaer were being asked to say that he was not from Badui Village and Not a descendant of Badui, and also that he should not teach the Badui Maenpo to others, and he was also asked to “soften” his maenpo, so there would not be any killing any more in the duel. And lastly he should only use his maenpo for humanity purpose.
    That was way the old teachers in Cimande won’t accept any payment from their student in cash, but they will accept the donation in form of things, but he shouldn’t sell them for cash also, only to consume/use.
    This second version are currently believed by the Maenpo Cimande communities in west side of west java (Banten, Serang, Sukabumi, tangerang, etc). They also believed that the old ulin there like Sera’ is originally from Ulin Cimande. They said that Penca Sera’ was from Uwak Sera which was one of the student of Abah Khaer. Unfortunately Penca Sera’ is copyrighted by a Dutch Family as their family art.

    3. The Third Version.
    This version is that has “a bit of written statement” and clearer place, this version comes from Tarik Kolot Village in Cimande in Bogor, the place of Abah Khaer descendants live. Event tough like that it still not very clear, since from the lineage it shows that Abah Khaer teacher is Abah Buyut. “Buyut” in sundanese it means ancestor, so it still unclear the individual who really taught Abah Khaer. Event though in tanah Sareal in Tarik Kolot, there are tombs of the Ancestors of Cimande like Abah Khaer, Abah Rangga, Abah Buyut, and others.

    Abah Khaer as merchant that traded among cities must overcame the hurdles like bandits, tigers, spotted leopard, snakes and so on. These things help him improved the Cimande style. In Batavia, he befriended other martial artists from China and Sumatra, they also exchanged their martial knowledge.

    ******
    The story after Abah Khaer founded Ulin Cimande.
    In 1760, in Cogreg Village in Bogor, he started teaching the Ulin Cimande and his students already spread in cities in West Java and Batavia. When he visit Cianjur, he met the leader of District Cianjur, yakni Raden Adipati Wiratanudatar(1776-1813), Abah Khaer by request to teach the district leader family and security staff in the government, to live in Cianjur in Kamurang Village. There first he was tested to face a famous Ulin Kuntao Makao fighter in the city square, and he won flawlessly and made him more and more famous.
    In 1815, he moved again to Bogor but then he lived in Tarik Kolot Village. He had five children, Endut, Ocod, Otang, Komar and Oyot. His five children spread it to whole pasundan land. And His student, Ace was the one in charge to teach in Bogor, and this Ace’s descendants until now is the one who teach Cimande in Tarik Kolot Village.
    The 19th century is the high of Ulin Cimande famousness, the style of clothing of Abah Khaer, pangsi pants and kampret shirts still being used by pencak silat practitioners now as the clothes for pencak silat practice. In 1825 Abah Khaer died.
    The Splinter system from Ulin Cimande like Sera’ and maenpo Ciwaringin in its advance (Under haji Abdul Rosid) change the jurus of cimande but still not out of the pakem (spirit) of Cimande. The problem now is that Abah Khaer didn’t leave any written system, only oral tradition that is not systematic. The spreading of cimande in that long time has creating many splinters with or without the acknowledgement of the main lineage, creating many new Cimande paguron, that doesn’t recognize each other.

    --- addition 2nd february 2011 ---

    The descendants that hold the main lineage are from Eyang Rangga, a spriritual teacher of Abah Khaer. That’s why religion influences Ulin Cimande until now.

    Pola dasar Cimande (Basic Pattern of Cimande)

    Cimande originally uses far fighting range (further that a kick range), this range is so it will be easy to avoid/dodge the attack, and a dominant range to counter attack.
    Every silat fighter in doing the strike must pay attention to stance for in purpose to keep the range with the opposition, The flat stance that being used can easily moved dan changed in rapid and high speed.
    In general, Ulin Cimande divided into three parts:

    1. Jurus Kelid Cimande.

    This Jurus is the main Jurus that has purpose to deflect the attack and tries to take one down. It contatin 33 jurus:
    1.tonjok bareng,
    2.tonjok saubelah,
    3.kelid selup,
    4.timpah seubelah,
    5.timpah serong ,
    6.timpah duakali,
    7.batekan,
    8.teke tampa,
    9.teke purilit
    10.tewekan,
    11.kedutan,
    12.guaran,
    13.kedut guar
    14.kelid dibeulah
    15.selup dibeulah,
    16,kelid tonjok
    17.selop tonjok
    18.kelid tilu,
    19.selup tilu
    20.kelid lima
    21.selup lima
    22 peuncitan,
    23.timpah bohong
    24.serong panggul,
    25.serong guwil,
    26.serong guar,
    27.singgul serong,
    28.singgul sebelah,
    29.sabet pedang,
    30.beulit kacang,
    31.beulit jalak pengkor
    32.pakala alit
    33.pakala gede

    If we pay close attention, this Jurus Kelid is focusing on hand toughness, like:
    - tonjok: closed fist.
    - Teke: extending the index finger (look at my avatar :P)
    - Tewekan: Flat palm to stab.
    - Kedutan: Using the inside of the palm.
    - Guaran: using the side side-of-the-palm (inside and outside part).
    - Singgulan: Using the start of the palm.

    ==== added 14th Feb 2011 =====
    Overall, jurus kelid movements look unique than the other silat like in Minangkabau where the strength of attack based on leg.

    To train it:
    Usually it was done with sitting down on the floor, two person sit facing each other, one leg is folded while the other leg straight facing front sideway. Then they do serang bela (attack-defend).
    The aim for this exercise is to train their imagination to use the right stance when the jurus is made when standing. By mastering the hand movement it is automatically easier to use the stance in serang bela.

    2. Jurus Pepedangan Cimande.
    This jurus based on the leg movement and striking technique using machete. In training the machete is made from bamboo. Jurus Pepedangan contains of:
    - elakan sebeulah
    - selup kuriling
    - jagangan
    - tagongan
    - piceunan
    - balungbang
    - balumbang
    - sabeulah
    - opat likur
    - buang dua kali
    - selup kuriling langsung
    - selop bohong.

    3. Jurus Telapak Selancar.
    This jurus only perform as art, because the jurus always being accompanied by kendang penca instruments (2 Big Kendang (indung) and 2 Small Kendang (kulantir)). That is functioned as accompanying the jurus and arranging the tempo. Trumpet as the melody and small gong (kempul or bende). In the performance, the movement is heavily synchronized with the kendang instrument.
    The music beat tone divided into:
    tepak dua,
    tepak dungdung ,
    paleredan,
    golempang and tepak tilu.

    When entering the Cimande School as the new student, must uphold the ethic code and ceremonial (traditionally), like fasting for 7 days, started from Monday or Thursday.
    Then reading the oath (Patelekan Cimande):
    1. Harus taat sdan taqwa kepada Allah dan Rasulnya
    Must believe and follow the teaching of the God and The Messenger.
    2. Jangan melawan kepada ibu dan bapak
    Don’t go against Mother and Father.
    3. Jangan melawan kepada guru dan ratu(pemerintah)
    Don’t rebel against teacher and government.
    4. Jangan berjudi dan mencuri
    Don’t do Gambling and Thievery.
    5. Jangan ria, takabur dan sombong
    Don’t be arrogant.
    6. Jangan berbuat zinah
    Don’t do adultery.
    7. Jangan bohong dan licik
    Don’t lie and sly.
    8. Jangan mabok-mabokan dan menghisap madat
    Don’t drink alcohol and do drugs.
    9. Jangan jahil dan menganiaya sesama mahluk Tuhan
    Don’t be cruel and ill-treat fellow God’s creatures.
    10. Jangan memetik tampa ijin, mengambil tampa minta,
    Don’t pick without asking for permission, don’t take without requesting.
    11. Jangan suka iri hati dan dengki
    Don’t be envy and jealous.
    12. Jangan suka tidak membayar hutang
    Don’t don’t pay debt.
    13. Harus sopan santun, rendah hati dan saling harga menghargai diantara sesama manusia.
    Must be polite, humble, and respect each other human being.
    14. Berguru Cimande bukan untuk gagah-gahan , kesombongan dan ugal-ugalan tetapi untuk mencapai keselamatan dunia dan akhirat.
    Learning Cimande is not for show off, boasting, and being mischievous, but to reach the salvation on earth and afterlife.

    Patelekan Cimande is explained and repeated on and on to the new student until the student really understand and willingly following it while his hand is being hold by the teacher.
    Next the teacher saying a tawasul prayer and dripping water and betel leaf to the student eyes (called dipereuh) this tradition called keceran ceremony to sharpen the sight.
    Last edited by reedone816; 02-14-2011 at 05:56 AM. Reason: finishing up CImande system

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    Default

    Thank you for the information regarding Silat reedone816, not sure if i would be practising this in the future, but it IS interesting non the less!

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